Images and reports from Raqqa city | October 24th 2018 | Syria

It's been a year since a coalition of countries led by the United States pushed ISIS out of Raqqa, its de facto capital. The air and ground assaults of that war caused massive destruction after the U.S. promised to stabilize Raqqa, an effort designed to prevent the kind of desperation among locals that might allow ISIS to return. But the funds for that have slowed, and many millions more are needed for real reconstruction, people living in ruins, and the resentment is growing.

None of Raqqa's destroyed bridges, essential for the movement of goods and people, has been repaired. The main hospital where IS made their last stand still lies in ruins.

America and Britain have contributed to the devastation. But both have stated they won't get involved directly in efforts to rebuild those areas of Syria that have been destroyed by the war until there's a UN-backed peace process for the whole country. That doesn't look like happening anytime soon.

Instead the US and a handful of other nations say they're focusing their efforts on "stabilisation".

Ahead of the invasion of Iraq in 2003 the then US Secretary of State Colin Powell warned President George W Bush "you break it, you own it". But so far no-one seems willing to apply that rule to the reconstruction of Raqqa.

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